The Rules of Blackjack

From: The Official Rules of Card Games, Hoyle Up-to-Date 1913

The Pack: Full pack, 52 cards.

Number of Players: Any number may play.

Rank of Cards: Cards have no relative rank but the counting value is as follows: K’s, Q’s, and J’s, 1o each; Aces, 11 or 1, balance are counted at pip value, 9’s 9, 8’s 8, etc.

Betting Before the Deal: Before cards are dealt each player, except the dealer, makes a bet placing the counters or chips before him. This bet must not exceed the limit and in some localities a fixed amount is set for this bet, such as one or two chips. (In one variation player is allowed to look at the first card dealt him before staking. Another allows a player, when he gets a pair in the deal, to separate the two cards and place a stake upon each one.) Dealer makes no bet, but is the banker, who takes and pays all player’s bets.

Object of the Game: To hold cards, the collective pip value of which most nearly approaches 21, without passing that number.

Dealing: Dealer gives each player two cards one at a time in rotation to the left. Deal passes to the left.

Drawing and Settling of Bets: Each player examines cards dealt him. If dealer’s cards consist of an Ace and 10 (or Court card) it is called a Natural, and each player (unless he also has a Natural) loses twice the amount he has staked. Should a player have a Natural and dealer none, dealer must pay player double. (In some localities player holding a Natural is allowed to take all stakes on table but this custom is not general.)

If no player receives a Natural (or after players [other than dealer] have been paid for Naturals held), each player in turn may ask for a card so as to bring the pip value of his hand nearer to 21. Drawing begins with eldest hand, and he may draw one card at a time until he is satisfied, or until the pip value of his hand exceeds 21. In latter case he must abandon his hand and pay his stake to dealer.

Next player to the left draws in same manner, and so on until each player is either satisfied or overdrawn. The dealer then turns his two cards face up and draws. If dealer overdraws, he pays each player who has not overdrawn the amount of that player’s stake. If dealer has 21 or less, players having same amount are tied and neither win nor lose, those holding less lose their stake, while those holding more than dealer but not more than 21 win the amount of their stakes.